Posts Tagged ‘mpesa’

Implications of Mobile Money Interoperability in Kenya?

Mobile money pioneer Kenya, has finally gone live this month with account to account interoperability between mobile money services. Neighbouring Tanzania pioneered interoperability between the mobile money services offered by local telcos with a soft launch back in 2014. Fears of cannibalization and zero sum scenarios were unfounded, as documented in an early evaluation report by the GSMA. On the other hand, perhaps that assessment of impact was far too early as little else is mentioned in the rather thin report. Fellow East African Community member Rwanda too has had interoperability for a couple of years now. Now, its Kenya’s turn.

In a market where mPesa services posted a market share of 80.8%, what, if any, will be the impact of this newfound ability to send money directly from wallet to wallet without cashing out?

Talking points in news media articles and various interested non profit bodies point to “increase in financial inclusion” and “increase in competitiveness” with lower transaction costs as the benefits to end users, but these seem to be just that, talking points.

Safaricom, the telco behind mPesa, has long maintained a stranglehold on the market, and even now continues raising barriers to frictionless payments. In the decade since mPesa’s launch and unchallenged dominance, the vast majority of Kenyans have had no choice but to set up their own account even if it means using a separate SIM*.

In a different market, such a move would be cause for a celebration- the potential benefits clearly outweighing any drawbacks to individual service operators, and the future potential for digital commerce and trade enabled by a frictionless payments platform to be realized in time. In fact, mobile money usage is only growing in both Tanzania and Rwanda, though in each the numbers of subscribers is less unevenly distributed across the telcos.

But in Kenya, beyond providing ~20% of mobile subscribers with the ability to send money to mPesa (more or less) seamlessly, the overall impact on platform and service innovation within the local economy is likely to remain limited. Providing the service takes the edge off Safaricom’s issues with monopolization of the market but will in no way change much of the daily transactional reality on the ground. Habits are hard to break. And mPesa has become a Kenyan habit.

 

*  mPesa has a penetration rate of ~81% as compared to Safaricom subscriber penetration of ~72%, as of January 2018

 

Mpesa takes on Banks with Mobile wallet linked Prepaid Card

Mpesa prepaid card

Mpesa prepaid card

On June 10th, Kenya’s leading mobile payments platform, Mpesa, announced it was piloting a Lipa na Mpesa prepaid card linked to mobile wallets. The card is an interesting product in a Kenya’s payment market turf wars. Banks versus a dominant Telcos, Safaricom.

According to Techweez,

“The card, mirrors a user’s M-Pesa account, meaning whatever amounts are in your M-Pesa wallet are reflected in the card. The card is NFC enabled where a user can Tap and Go at the point of checkout when making purchases for goods and services. The card is to be used at merchants for purchase of goods and services and will have its own Point of Sale System”

The card links with customers Mpesa wallet and phone service for SMS notifications.

 

What does this mean for the industry?

Safaricom now owns and controls a complete vertical, end to end: SIM card, Communication network infrastructure, cash in cash out (CICO) agents,  acquired merchants and now, prepaid card and Point of Sale.

The company, has single handedly built out a payments infrastructure comparable only to a combined Banking, card company, ATM and Merchant network.

With its own proprietary Point of Sale System, Safaricom’s grip on payment channels will only tighten. Only approved Mpesa products will work on it, just like Safaricom decides who appears on SIM card Menus.

 

What is going on?

It seems odd that a company renowned for mobile payments is taking us back to cards, even after successfully scaling mobile payments in Kenya. It speaks to its competition with Banks at merchant level and cash in – cash out point like agents.

Financial Services agency in Kenya, Kahawa West

Financial Services agency in Kenya, Kahawa West

Kenyan Banks have always been on the back foot, trying to catch up with Mpesa. Eventually they teamed up to take on Mpesa. Partnering with Visa and Mastercard, banks have swamped customers with branded debit cards. Cards let you pay at acquired merchants using Point of Sales card terminals, withdraw cash from ATMs, and cash in  or cash out at agency banking points.

In contrast, Mpesa users already enjoy all the benefits of cards, even withdrawals from ATMs via their phones. The Lipa na Mpesa card  simply expands options for its customers’ mobile wallets to include what banks offer too – card payments.

Kenyan banks combined are yet to catch up, as per the Central Bank of Kenya statistics they have:

  • lower cards issued versus Mpesa subscribers at 19 million
  • lower acquired POS merchants versus Mpesa Merchants now at 44,000 merchants
  • lower bank agents versus Mpesa’s mobile money agents now more than 83,000 agents

To be fair, it is not the first time a Telcos has got into the card payment business. Airtel launched a Airtel Visa Card in February 2014. But hey, this is Kenya, Mpesa territory.

The card is currently being trialed in an internal pilot with 1,500 of its employees using the card to pay for their meals at the company’s cafeteria.

 

Emerging Markets Competition – this time its technology

Around twenty years ago, when the Indian and Chinese markets first opened up to global brands, many were surprised to discover domestic incumbents were stronger than they had imagined.

Proctor & Gamble’s laundry detergents battled for the Indian housewife’s attention and share of wallet. It wasn’t just their usual competitor Unilever either but indigenous upstarts like Nirma, who’d carved out the low price category all by themselves.  Other FMCG brands faced varying degrees of pressure, with a wide variety of outcomes, some of which still haven’t settled down. Even Coca Cola, the planet’s favourite refreshment, wasn’t immune to the local preference for Limca and Campa and Thumb’s Up.

Now, as the African emerging markets similarly capture global attention, there’s a new trend in pushback. Uber’s Nairobi entry hasn’t been unchallenged, as local apps leverage their greater local knowledge of the way things work. Ben Bajarin has already noted that in each of the major emerging markets of the developing world, its local incumbents in e-commerce, apps and hardware who take the lead.

Being overlooked for decades as a serious market seems to have had the same effect in the key sub Saharan economies as being closed off from the outside world had on the Indian and Chinese markets. Local solutions have grown and flourished. Market entry will not be a cakewalk and its a dangerous assumption for new entrants to make.

How can I end this short note without mentioning MPesa, Kenya’s inimitable and ubiquitous mobile money transfer system? Mobile payments have overtaken credit cards as the preferred cashless mode for transactions.

Technology is the new consumer product.

‘Mpesa si pesa’ – mobile money’s collision with informal sector’s cash culture

Ever since mobile money (MM) came along, ‘cashless’ is all the rage in East Africa. Money experts have a sack-full of reasons why mobile money is good for the economy. The truth is, however, making a case for MM is easy – no doubt, but, one perspective that is often left out in almost all the headlines is how people interact with it (MM). In particular, those living or working in rural/peri-urban “informal sector” micro-economies – matatu drivers, Mama mboga, boda boda guys.

DSC08922

Karantina, Kenya [Photo Credit: Niti Bhan]

This segment is important for several reasons

  • It makes up 55 per cent of Sub-Saharan Africa’s GDP and 80 per cent of the labour force according to Afdb’s Recognizing Africa’s Informal Sector
  • Sub Saharan markets are mostly dual economies – a mix of formal and informal markets
  • 90% of all transactions in informal markets are conducted in cash money.
  • The unbanked and underbanked are more likely to be found here

Valuable insights, unlikely to come up in the comfort of an office, have sprung out of my regular interactions with this segment.

Listening to the people

Consider Gichage for instance, a fruit vendor in Nairobi who says

Mpesa si pesa” swahili for ‘Mpesa is NOT money’,

right after I ask to pay for my 3 mangoes via mobile money. Or, the same look I get whenever I ask to make low value payments for boda boda flights or lunch at mama mboga’s (less than 200 KES/ $ 3).

“Hauna cash?” – Don’t you have cash?

“Utatuma na ya kutoa?” – Will you send with additional fees to cover withdrawal charges?

Almost always, a quick withdrawal into cash at the local MM agent (at a cost of time and money)  becomes necessary to settle my bills. The rest of the time, I oblige and pay dearly to have them accept my money.

Gleaning insights from the ground

Here, it seems I am a foreigner because, unlike the fancy malls where I pay with card/cash/mobile money – cash (and social capital) are the norm. What’s more, it is not just within this interaction space, but on the fringes as well where, the infomal crosses path with formal and semi-formal sectors & actors. My electronic money – MM and debit cards – is no good here – arguably, “si pesa”

O3pV9Sa

http://ethnographymatters.net/blog/2014/02/20/a-shift-in-the-business-environment-that-ethnographers-cant-ignore/

Are attempts at replacing cash with digital money, deep down, really about taking on ecosystems? – systems comprising of actors who interact and transact mostly in cash, social capital based debt instruments, community currencies or what have you.

If it is anything like the image above, where cash relationships are a complex web of bubble collisions, then, replacing cash is a greater challenge than we think.

 

This post is a guest blog by Michael Kimani (@pesa_africa) founder of the African Digital Currency Association

Connecting the Continent: Mobile Money across Africa

With much less fanfare than banking and accounts, a quieter revolution has been taking place on the electronic pathways connecting people in African regions. Historically competitive telcos are shaking hands and joining forces on mobile money. Interoperability has long been a dream and it is only now that we see things starting to take shape. Since the news has been dribbling out in bits and bobs over time, lets take a comprehensive look at the landscape of the operating environment and the connections being made across the continent.

social-media-listening-dashboard-5-638Safaricom, the progenitors of MPesa, the grandfather of all mobile money payment systems, isn’t actually a major telco on the continent. Its monopoly on mobile services is only in Kenya. However, when it comes to active mobile money users, its in the lead.

190614b1-e1403196580116

http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/annual-reports-show-mobile-money-remains-a-strategic-priority-for-mno-groups

This is the current state of the art of mobile money across the continent

mobilemoney

And here are some of the connections being made, with the most recent, first.

CDV_KdpWIAAiT23.jpg large

crossborderremitEACYou’ll note the significant leap that MPesa has made by going beyond its original agreement with Tanzania’s Vodacom – a Vodafone group company – by joining hands with MTN. Using the same colour coding for the graphic below, we see the flows in West Africa:

crossborderremitWaemuIn addition to these mapped intra African operator alliances, here are a few intra-operator mobile money alliances to note:

  • Three of Tanzania’s four mobile networks, Tigo, Airtel and Zantel  announced Africa’s first agreement to allow their customers in the country to send money to each other whether using Tigo Pesa, Airtel Money or EzyPesa on their mobile handsets.
  • M-Pesa Tanzania and Tigo Pesa Tanzania interoperable
  • Airtel subscribers could also begin cross border remittances of money on its platform sending and receiving money amongst other users in Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Zambia.
  • The other countries that will be offering the Airtel Money service soon include Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria.

That last is interesting, because the Zambians are asking the $64,000 question even as all eyes are on the media hoopla.

Our concern is that the other 2 countries, DRC and Rwanda, are not exactly the first options for trade by Zambia, but are some of the markets Airtel is in. If countries like Nigeria and Tanzania were the first to get access, we’d see so many transfers from here.

For now, we predict the transfers made will be more personal, to family/friends, than for trade purposes. If not, we would gladly appreciate any statistics on this from Airtel itself.

I don’t think the telcoms are even thinking about trade. The GSMA cross border report focuses on the remittance aspect, with the broadly unquestioned assumption that its all to family and friends.

Mapping it all

I’d love it if someone could capture all of this into one map and infographic – not only the cross border transactional ability but also the cross border interoperability as well as in country interoperability. Like the Zambians, I think the potentials for business, trade, e-commerce and biashara are far more than anyone has even considered. Top down reportage on banking and interoperability seems to focus only on the customer’s individual needs, and overlooks their agency as entrepreneurs, traders and business people.

The Informal Economy Symposium, Barcelona on October 12th 2012

Our aim with this symposium is to explore the global scope, innovations and potential futures of the informal economy.

Opening Keynote will be John Keith Hart, who coined the term “informal economy” and the day long symposium on the 12th of October will be closed by John Thackara.  There will be three panel discussions, as follows:

PANEL 1: SCOPE, MEANING AND TENSIONS IN THE INFORMAL ECONOMY

This panel will explore the scope, tensions and influences of the informal economy. It will set the stage, provide case studies, and present new themes that make clear why the informal economy is a key topic for business and society today. It will address critical questions for the symposium: What are historical foundations, contemporary developments, conception and misconceptions of the informal economy? What parts are institutionalised or marginalised and which are not?  What does regulation look like?  How is the informal economy similar or different in emerging vs. developed markets?  What kinds of goods and services does it include?  Are there good and bad informal economies? How are the informal and formal linked? How do labor, goods and services move within and between them? Why does contemporary business need to understand the informal economy?

PANEL 2: THE FUTURE OF MONEY AND THE INFORMAL ECONOMY

This panel will explore the use of money and other exchanges in the informal economy. This panel builds on the previous, starting with the premise that the informal economy is a place to create new value for business and society. It will discuss the relationship between regulated finance and informal exchanges, focusing on, among other things, mobile money. Some key questions to be addressed include: How is the use, exchange and idea of money similar or different in formal vs. informal economies? How do digital technologies encourage and expand informal practices and exchanges?  What are the ways to establish financial links and other bridges between formal businesses and informal practices? What are specific financial needs in various informal economies? What are the challenges faced by companies operating in financial services and other businesses when addressing the context and practices of the informal economy?
panelists: Ben Lyon, Ignacio Mas, Niti Bhan  moderator: Rich Radka

PANEL 3: INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITIES IN THE INFORMAL ECONOMY

This panel will look at innovation within the informal economy. Rather than approach informal economic practices as make-do strategies of people in the margins, panelists explore the potential for the lean and agile practices of the informal economy to adapt to contemporary global shifts. Some key questions to be addressed include: Can informal economic practices be indicators of future economic activity? What can these practices teach us about our own innovation efforts and modes of doing business?  What does the persistence of informal economies mean for the future of business? What challenges does it present? What are some ways companies can act on opportunities?

You can register for the symposium here, or follow the blog and twitter hashtag #informaleconomy.

Pondering a new prepaid research focus

Ever since I completed the first Prepaid Economy study which looked at how those on irregular income streams managed their household finances – focusing on rural Philippines and India – I’ve been curious about rural Kenya. I’ve long wanted to delve into the impact, if any, of the mobile money systems that have rapidly gained popularity in the country.

My thinking goes that if I were to ask the same set of questions as I did in Philippines and India (and as John Lumbe did for me remotely in Malawi) without any prompting, then if services like MPESA et al had indeed made any signficant social or economic impact in the ways people deal with and manage emergencies, loans and planning for large future expenses, it would emerge spontaneously in the answers given.

Now it looks as though I may just get my chance to follow through with this dream in at least two rural locations, early in the new year. Lets keep our fingers crossed.

M-PESA and the service innovation framework (extract)

A former student of mine just mailed me this article “Extracting Key Lessons in Service Innovation” (pdf) by S.Wooder and S. Baker, recently published in the Journal of Product Innovation Management, January 2012 edition. Here is the abstract of the article:

This paper describes how Sagentia—working with Vodafone, Safaricom, and other organizations—played a significant role in the creation and delivery of a landmark mobile money transfer and payment service for emerging markets, starting in Kenya. In this profile we examine the organization aspects and approach that contributed to the success of the service: the lessons we learned as the technology provider and how the experience has informed and strengthened our service innovation processes.

Reading through, what I found most valuable among the basic principles so simply and clearly articulated, was this insightful description of service innovation, as pertaining to the ways that a human centered design innovation team can work to improve the customer experience for any company, large or small:

What Is Service Innovation?  Creating and Delivering Value

We are familiar with service innovation examples such as music download, loyalty programs, franchise chains, ticket/check-in kiosks, and online tax returns.

Service innovation can be described as a combination of technology innovation, business model innovation, social-organizational innovation, and demand innovation, with the objective of improving existing services (incremental innovation), creating new value propositions (offerings), or creating new service systems (radical or transformational innovation) (IfM and IBM, 2008). The key components of service innovation can be distilled down to “participative” value delivery; […]

So if the service is considered to be:

• something that may or may not entail physical product delivery or consumption
• a value delivery mechanism that connects the enterprise to the customer
• the combination of a value proposition, a delivery mechanism, and a customer’s experience

Then service innovation is simply innovation applied to one or more of the following areas:

• new concepts and/or value propositions
• new delivery mechanisms and/or business models
• new experiences

[…] Successful service or product innovation encompasses progress from the creative act (the so-called fuzzy front end) to the commercialization act (execution) and beyond that to sustainability and evolution of the innovation. Our simple framework for service innovation is shown in Figure 3

Service-Innovation-FrameworkAnd finally, they share with us the mapping of MPESA on to this service innovation framework.

mpesa matrix

The authors conclude their informative article with the following words:

Key lessons that were highlighted by our experience with M-PESA include:

• Learning in a detailed sense the needs of users in new markets and ensuring that it is possible to implement these needs and requirements as part of a pilot process;
• “Keeping it simple”; particularly in the early stages of the service, it is important to focus on a small set of compelling, marketable functions and features;
• Ensure that flexibility and agility, the ability to react and to respond to changes in the business model, are designed into the system; and
• For a service to succeed, it requires a critical mass of users as soon as possible; identifying mechanisms to motivate users to take up the service is an important part of the service innovation process.

The results of the study cannot claim to be generally applicable; however, it has allowed the “usefulness” of the conceptual stages in the service innovation framework to be empirically tested in a real-world example, and the vulnerabilities and strengths are better understood as a result.

The mobile, the media and the money: empowering Kenyans for Kenya

If I were to go by the majority of the mainstream global media articles on the subject of the drought in East Africa, I would think that only citizens in the USA and across Europe were contributing assistance for food aid.  Yet my twitter feed is full of stories of how much Kenyans have raised in donations by text messaging alone while the BBC (again found via twitter) has this to say:

Kenyans have donated nearly $200,000 (£122,000) via mobile phone banking for aid to victims of the worst drought in the region in 60 years.
The BBC’s Noel Mwakugu in the capital, Nairobi, says the money has been raised in the first 12 hours of an appeal launched by leading businesses.
[…]
The appeal – involving mobile phone company Safaricom, Kenya’s Daily Nation newspaper and Kenya Commercial Bank – is intended to raise $5.4m.

And The Standard (I know, but…) has this snippet which I’d like to add:

Over 6,000 Kenyans at home and abroad engaged in discussions in social media, Twitter and Facebook on how to deal with the crisis. They encouraged other Kenyans to contribute to the Kenyans for Kenya Initiative.

This is significant.

There are layers that need to be unpacked but the obvious ones stand out – mobile phones, mPesa, social media, communications technology. But its far more than just that, and it may just be a signal indicator of a tipping point. Of what kind I hesitate to write down in words at the moment, I want to ponder it further and discuss with Muchiri who has far more experience in social media, social crm and of course Kenya than I do. But my first impulse I will leave you with, this little device has indeed become a post industrial platform for social and economic development, which is just another way of saying empowerment.